Bows and Arrows

By:Sabrina Schnell

The question-

What motions and forces do you use in shooting a bow?


external image 2010Bengal.jpgWhen you are standing at a line waiting for your turn to shoot or sitting in a tree waiting for that perfect deer to walk by. You are using motion and force whenever you pull back on your bow string. Knowing what kind of motion and force you are using can help you shoot better, because then you can get the right arrows and equipment to help work with the law of motion.

Link to online resources-

Pictures-

1. http://www.yeoldearcheryshoppe.com/images/2010Bengal.jpg




Research-


How much force do you use when pulling back a bow?

When you are pulling back on your bow either with your fingers or a release you are using force to pull back the string. Depending on how many pounds you put on your string is how much force you will need to pull it back. You will need different amount of pound to kill different kinds of animals or to shoot a target. So you need to pull back the string with more force the more pounds are put on your bow string.
external image 331270-main_Full.jpg
How many pounds
you need

What you can hit with the force
of the bow

10-20 pounds
Targets
40-50 pounds
Deer
50-60 pounds
Elk
70 pounds
and over

Bears and other thick skinned animals

You are also using unbalanced force when you are pulling back your bow string; your arm is acting on the string, it is moving the string from resting position to pulling it back to your face. So Newton’s first law of motion is being used when you pulling back your bow.

Link to online resources -

Pictures-
  1. http://i.ehow.com/images/a05/2g/1o/tune-release-bow-800X800.jpg

Information-

  1. http://www.archerybowsandarrowsonline.com/archerybowsandarrowsonline.com/Compound-Bow-Fitting-Guide_a/132.htm



What happens when you let go of the string?


When you have the string pulled back to your face the arrow is resting and has static friction between the arrow rest and the arrow. But when you let go of the string it makes kinetic friction because the arrow is moving past the side of the bow. Also when you let go of the string, the string fly’s forward and the arrow fly’s off the bow. That is the part when you pull back on the string and it make tension in the bows limbs and when you let go the tension is released. Which is force, the force of the tension is making the arrow fly out of the bow and down toward the target you are aiming for.


external image LV1.JPG
external image recurve%20bow%202.jpg
There are really two kinds of bow ones with just wood and ones with cams. There is a longbow, recurve bow, and a compound bow. The longbow has just wood limbs and is a lot harder to pull back on the string but it still has the same amount of force as a compound bow has in firing off an arrow. A compound is made of metal and has wheels, different kinds of strings, and has a easier pull back. Just the same with the recurve bow it can be metal or it can be wood but it still has the same amount of force as the longbow and compound does when you fire off an arrow towards a target.


Link to online resources-Pictures-
  1. http://home.comcast.net/~dcm4/Old%20Bow%20Stuff/LV1.JPG
  2. http://huntingexperienceforyou.com/wp-content/uploads/image/recurve%20bow%202.jpg

Information-

  1. http://martialartsweaponsguide.com
  2. http://www.tucsonarchery.com/Bow_Types.php


What does the mass and the motion of the arrow do to the shot?

external image 11026-Orange-Arrow-Flying-At-A-Dartboard-Clipart-Illustration.jpg
The arrow is flying in the air with the momentum from the bow. Because of the momentum it is giving the arrow velocity. The mass of the arrow is also helping the way the arrow is going through the air. Most of the mass of the arrow is in the front and the center of the mass is in the middle of the arrow. And at the end of the arrow is the fletching or the vanes. Which keeps the arrow moving in a straight path by making the arrow spin like a football does in the air. So this keeps the arrow in motion by moving the arrow straight to the target. Also the mass helps the arrow get to the center of the target and by projectile motion. When you shoot the arrow it takes a cured path toward the target. That's why when you shoot your bow you need to aim above the centeexternal image 1916.jpgr of the target you are trying to hit so when you shoot the arrow it will hit the center of your target. The mass from the tip of the arrow helps it make a cured path because of the mass at the front of the arrow. And because of free fall pushing on the arrow it can’t accelerate anymore to make the arrow go faster. This is a very important part of shooting a bow and arrow and if we didn't have mass or motion the arrow wouldn't fly at all.


Link to online resources-


Pictures-
  1. http://images.clipartof.com/small/11026-Orange-Arrow-Flying-At-A-Dartboard-Clipart-Illustration.jpg
  2. http://www.owoa.com.au/images/1916.jp

Information-

  1. http://www.meta-synthesis.com/archery/archery.html
  2. http://www.worsleyschool.net/science/files/archery/page.html
  3. http://physicsbuzz.physicscentral.com/2009/02/howd-they-do-that-tuesday-bow-and.html





What happens when the arrow hits the target?

The arrow is flying through the air at a strong velocity and the projectile motion is bringing the aexternal image ARC3115-3116.jpgrrow down toward your target. Depending on how many pounds you put on your bow and how much force is being used you will know by how the arrow is in the target. If it comes out very easy it just made it to the target and if it is in super far in the target that means you have a lot of force left over. But when the arrow is in the air it has momentum so when it hits the target you are shooting transfers the momentum from the arrow to the target. That transfer would be called law of conservation of momentum because the arrow is hitting the target and transferring the momentum to the target. When the arrow hits the target with all the momentum it is making the target move back and forth or side to side. This is also using Newton’s third law of motion because the arrow moves and the target is the reaction force acting on the arrow and stops it from moving.





external image mckenzie-hd-medium-deer-target-jumbo.jpg
Link to online resources-

Pictures-


1. http://www.solware.co.uk/archery-crossbows/ARC3115-3116.jpg
2. http://www.huntersfriend.com/products/archery/targets/images/mckenzie-hd-medium-deer-target-jumbo.jpg








Video-


In this video it shows a man shooting a bow and arrow at a target. You can see when he lets go of the string the kinetic friction between the arrow and the bow rest. Then you can see the motion of the arrow flying through the air and how the vanes or fletching help keep it going straight. Also when the arrow hits the target how it transfers the momentum between the arrow and the target.


http://www.youtube-nocookie.com/v/hDV1pHtI7S8&hl=en_US&fs=1&color1=0x006699&color2=0x54abd6&border=1"
This is the video i picked





Bibliography



Pictures-
  • "compound bow".ye oldear chery shoppe. Web. 2 Apr 2010.
  • "i ehow." Web. 2 Apr 2010.
  • "comcast." comcast.net. Web. 2 Apr 2010
  • "hunting expericence." Web. 2 Apr 2010.
  • "orange target and arrow." clip art. Web. 2 Apr 2010.
  • "top and bottom of a arrow." owoa. Web. 2 Apr 2010

Video -



Information-

  • archery bow and arrows online. N.p., 2009. Web. 2 Apr 2010.
  • martial arts weapons . N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Apr 2010.
  • bow types and styles. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Apr 2010.
  • archery, arrows and flight: recurve bows. N.p., 2005-2009. Web. 2 Apr 2010.
  • willis, bill, and . archery. N.p., 1998-2010. Web. 2 Apr 2010
  • physics buzz. N.p., 24 2 2009. Web. 2 Apr 2010.
  • information from my physical science class
  • what i know and have experanced by doing archery for 4 years